A1C – measures the amount of hemoglobin in the blood that has glucose attached to it. Hemoglobin is a protein found inside red blood cells that carries oxygen to the body. Hemoglobin cells are constantly dying and regenerating. Their lifespan is approximately three months



Basal- insulin is also known as long-acting insulin. It helps to keep blood sugar levels stable during periods of fasting, such as between meals or during sleep. During these times, the body keeps releasing sugar (also known as glucose) into the bloodstream. This gives energy to the body's cells


Bolus-  is insulin that is specifically taken at meal times to keep blood glucose levels under control following a meal. Bolus insulin needs to act quickly and so short-acting insulin or rapid-acting insulin will be used.


Beta Cell- cells of the pancreas that produce insulin



Carbohydrate - have six major functions within the body: Providing energy and regulation of blood glucose. Sparing the use of proteins for energy. Breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis.


CGM (continuous glucose monitor)- is a method to track glucose levels throughout the day and night. CGM systems take glucose measurements at regular intervals, 24 hours a day, and translate the readings into dynamic data, generating glucose direction and rate of change reports.


Counting Carbohydrates- a method that helps people with diabetes to calculate the correct amount of carbohydrates during the day.



Diabetes Gastroparesis - Gastroparesis is a disorder affecting people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in which the stomach takes too long to empty its contents (delayed gastric emptying). The vagus nerve controls the movement of food through the digestive tract. If the vagus nerve is damaged or stops working, the muscles of the stomach and intestines do not work normally, and the movement of food is slowed or stopped


Diabetes Mellitus - refers to a group of diseases that affect how your body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel.


Diabetes Neuropathy-  is nerve damage that is caused by diabetes. Over time, high blood glucose levels also called blood sugar, and high levels of fats, such as triglycerides, in the blood from diabetes can damage your nerves. Symptoms depend on which type of diabetic neuropathy you have.


Diabetes Nephropathy- is a serious kidney-related complication of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. It is also called diabetic kidney disease. Diabetic nephropathy affects the ability of your kidneys to do their usual work of removing waste products and extra fluid from your body


DKA (Diabetes Ketoacidosis) -  is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated.


Diabetes Educator - A certified diabetes educator is a health care professional who is specialized and certified to teach people with diabetes how to manage their condition. The CDE is an asset for those who need to learn the tools and skills necessary to control their blood sugar and avoid long-term complications due to hyperglycemia



Endocrinologist- A doctor who has special training in diagnosing and treating disorders of the endocrine system (the glands and organs that make hormones). These disorders include diabetes, infertility, and thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary gland problems



Gestational diabetes -develops during pregnancy (gestation). Like other types of diabetes, gestational diabetes affects how your cells use sugar (glucose).


Gestational diabetes causes high blood sugar that can affect your pregnancy and your baby's health


Glucagon- is a hormone that is involved in controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels. It is produced by the alpha cells, found in the islets of Langerhans, in the pancreas, from where it is released into the bloodstream. The glucagon-secreting alpha cells surround the insulin-secreting beta cells, which reflects the close relationship between the two hormones.


Glucose - a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates. In situations where your glucose level is too high, insulin will help to bring it down. For people with diabetes, too-high blood sugar is a sign that they may need to administer synthetic insulin. In less serious situations, physical activity can help lower your levels.


Glucose in the blood - When insulin is released from the pancreas, it travels through the bloodstream to the body's cells and tells the cell doors to open to let the glucose in. When this happens, the amount of glucose going into the cells also slows down.



Hormone - Pancreas – an organ of digestion which is inside the abdomen. It makes insulin, which controls the amount of sugar in the bloodstream. It also makes other hormones such as glucagon and somatostatin.


Hyperglycemia - an excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated with diabetes mellitus


Hypoglycemia - deficiency of glucose in the bloodstream



Insulin- a hormone produced in the pancreas by the islets of Langerhans that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood. The lack of insulin causes a form of diabetes


Insulin resistance-  is when cells in your muscles, fat, and liver don’t respond well to insulin and can’t easily take up glucose from your blood. Thus, your pancreas makes more insulin to help glucose enter your cells. If your pancreas can make enough insulin to overcome your cells’ weak response to insulin, your blood glucose levels will stay in the healthy range



Ketones- are acids made when your body begins using fat instead of carbohydrates for energy. This happens when there is not enough insulin to get sugar from the blood into the cells, and the body turns fat into energy. When fat is broken down, ketone bodies are made and can accumulate in the body. This condition is called diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, and is often the first sign of diabetes before diagnosis.




LADA - Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a slow progressing form of autoimmune diabetes. Like the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes, LADA occurs because your pancreas stops producing adequate insulin, most likely from some "insult" that slowly damages the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. But unlike type 1 diabetes, with LADA, you often won't need insulin for several months up to years after you've been diagnosed.



Pancreas-  is an organ located in the abdomen. It plays an essential role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar.


Pre-diabetes - means your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes



Type 1 diabetes-  once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.


Type 2 diabetes - your body either resists the effects of insulin — a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells — or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level.








American Diabetes Association